How do you calibrate a manure spreader?

Calibrating a manure spreader is critical to ensure that the appropriate rate of manure nutrients is being applied to a field. For some livestock operations, this practice may be a required practice as part of their permit. Calibration will differ depending on the equipment and type of manure being applied.

If you know the capacity of the spreader, you need to determine the width of each pass and the distance it takes to empty the spreader to determine the rate …

Mold and Mycotoxin Issues in Dairy Cattle: Effects, Prevention and Treatment


  • Molds are filamentous (fuzzy or dusty-appearing) fungi that occur commonly in feedstuffs, including roughages and concentrates.
  • Molds can infect dairy cattle causing a disease referred to as mycosis. A mycosis is most likely when cows may be immune suppressed during stressful periods. A mycosis can occur in various locations such as the lungs, mammary gland, uterus, or intestine. An intestinal infection may result in hemorrhagic bowel.
  • Molds may also affect cattle by producing poisons called mycotoxins that affect animals