What is the difference between the “higher heating value” (HHV) and “lower heating value” (LHV) of a biomass fuel, and why is the difference important?

We need these two ways of expressing the heating value of fuels because the combustion of some hydrogen-rich fuels releases water that is subsequently evaporated in the combustion chamber. In other words, the process of evaporating water “soaks up” some of the heat released by fuel combustion. That heat, known as the “latent heat of vaporization,” is temporarily lost and therefore does not contribute to the work done by the combustion process. As a result, the formation and vaporization of …

How can I prevent leaching of nitrate into groundwater from manure applications?

Nitrate contamination of groundwater occurs when excess nitrate in the soil profile moves along with water that is moving down past the root zone of the crop. In most cases, it is not possible to keep water from moving past the roots, so the only other option for preventing nitrate leaching is to avoid having excess nitrate present in the root zone during times when leaching events are likely to occur. Determine the available nitrogen content of manure prior to …

What are withdrawal times (periods) for meat and milk, and where can they be found?

Withdrawal periods reflect the amount of time necessary for an animal to metabolize an administered product and the amount of time necessary for the product concentration level in the tissues to decrease to a safe, acceptable level. Every federally approved drug or animal health product has a withdrawal period printed on the product label or package insert. Products carry meat withdrawal periods ranging from 0 to 60 days. Examples for meat range from no withdrawal period with ceftiofur, 4-15 days …

What are specific recommendations for cleaning calf bottles?

The main reason for washing calf-feeding equipment is to minimize bacteria and other pathogens present at the next feeding. Proper cleaning procedures include rinsing, washing, rinsing, and allowing to completely air dry.

Step 1. Rinse in lukewarm water. Rinsing can be accomplished by spraying or by immersing in water. Make sure you rinse both the inside and outside of calf buckets, bottles, nipples, and other feeding equipment. Water temperature is very important. If too hot, protein from milk or milk …