Livestock First Aid and Safety

Injured animals and animals under stress react differently than they do in normal circumstances. If you don’t work with livestock often, you may not completely understand how to keep yourself and animals safe in stressful situations, or how to provide first aid to injured animals.

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The presenters focus on how to work safely around these animals and discuss basic first aid techniques to use with livestock and working animals. They also provide tips on livestock first aid …

Enhancing Biosecurity at Fairs and Shows

Photograph is copyright Luc Asbury and is used under Creative Commons licensing.

 

This webinar was presented by Scott Cotton, University of Wyoming Area Educator and EDEN Chair-elect, and Curt Emanuel, Purdue Extension Educator and Boone County Extension Director. Cotton has been with Extension since 1993 and involved in disasters since 1972. His emergency/disaster roles have ranged from medical technician and firefighter to ICS/NIMS instructor and disaster exercise facilitator.  Emanuel is a former professional horse trainer. Since joining Purdue Extension in …

Livestock Biosecurity

 

What Is It and Why Should I care?

Biosecurity refers to strategies and management practices that lessen biological risk. On a farm, attention to biosecurity is the most important measure to reduce and prevent the introduction of diseases or pests of animals and plants. Biosecurity practices also minimize the spread of diseases or pests within a farm system. Many aspects of biosecurity are common sense, but if these strategies and practices are not enforced consistently, there is a greater risk …

Are there different strains of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus?

There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus and over 60 subtypes. The seven serotypes are A, C, O, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2, and SAT 3. New subtypes occasionally develop spontaneously. The large number of virus types and subtypes creates challenges for the maintenance of vaccine stockpiles that can be deployed in the event of an outbreak. 

Strains of FMD serotype O are of most concern for disease spread into new areas. FMD serotype …

What is a breech birth, and what causes it?

During parturition, a breech birth describes fetal presentation. Breech birth is characterized with a calf presenting butt first with no front or hind limbs entering the birth canal. The tail and hindquarters of the calf can be palpated via the vagina.

The cause of breech birth is not known, but it does not appear to be related to cowherd nutrition or genetics.

When a breech birth is experienced, professional assistance (veterinarian) should be immediately consulted.…

How do you calibrate a manure spreader?

Calibrating a manure spreader is critical to ensure that the appropriate rate of manure nutrients is being applied to a field. For some livestock operations, this practice may be a required practice as part of their permit. Calibration will differ depending on the equipment and type of manure being applied.

If you know the capacity of the spreader, you need to determine the width of each pass and the distance it takes to empty the spreader to determine the rate …

What’s the P Index?

The P Index is the Phosphorus Index, a risk assessment tool to quantify the potential for phosphorus runoff from a field. The P Index helps to target critical source areas of potential P loss for greater management attention. It includes source and transport factors. Source factors address how much P is available (for example, soil test P level and P fertilizer and manure application amounts). Transport factors evaluate the potential for runoff to occur (for example, soil erosion, distance and …

How is foot-and-mouth disease spread?

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be transmitted in a variety of ways, the most common being direct contact with an infected animal. Once infected, animals become “virus factories,” capable of spreading high numbers of viral particles to other animals and into the environment. Infected swine, in particular, can release millions of viral particles when they exhale. The airborne virus can then be breathed in by nearby susceptible animals. Persons who have been around infected animals also are capable of carrying the …

What is the difference between the “higher heating value” (HHV) and “lower heating value” (LHV) of a biomass fuel, and why is the difference important?

We need these two ways of expressing the heating value of fuels because the combustion of some hydrogen-rich fuels releases water that is subsequently evaporated in the combustion chamber. In other words, the process of evaporating water “soaks up” some of the heat released by fuel combustion. That heat, known as the “latent heat of vaporization,” is temporarily lost and therefore does not contribute to the work done by the combustion process. As a result, the formation and vaporization of …

How can I prevent leaching of nitrate into groundwater from manure applications?

Nitrate contamination of groundwater occurs when excess nitrate in the soil profile moves along with water that is moving down past the root zone of the crop. In most cases, it is not possible to keep water from moving past the roots, so the only other option for preventing nitrate leaching is to avoid having excess nitrate present in the root zone during times when leaching events are likely to occur. Determine the available nitrogen content of manure prior to …