Livestock First Aid and Safety

Injured animals and animals under stress react differently than they do in normal circumstances. If you don’t work with livestock often, you may not completely understand how to keep yourself and animals safe in stressful situations, or how to provide first aid to injured animals.

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The presenters focus on how to work safely around these animals and discuss basic first aid techniques to use with livestock and working animals. They also provide tips on livestock first aid …

Enhancing Biosecurity at Fairs and Shows

Photograph is copyright Luc Asbury and is used under Creative Commons licensing.

 

This webinar was presented by Scott Cotton, University of Wyoming Area Educator and EDEN Chair-elect, and Curt Emanuel, Purdue Extension Educator and Boone County Extension Director. Cotton has been with Extension since 1993 and involved in disasters since 1972. His emergency/disaster roles have ranged from medical technician and firefighter to ICS/NIMS instructor and disaster exercise facilitator.  Emanuel is a former professional horse trainer. Since joining Purdue Extension in …

Livestock Biosecurity

 

What Is It and Why Should I care?

Biosecurity refers to strategies and management practices that lessen biological risk. On a farm, attention to biosecurity is the most important measure to reduce and prevent the introduction of diseases or pests of animals and plants. Biosecurity practices also minimize the spread of diseases or pests within a farm system. Many aspects of biosecurity are common sense, but if these strategies and practices are not enforced consistently, there is a greater risk …

Are there different strains of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus?

There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus and over 60 subtypes. The seven serotypes are A, C, O, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2, and SAT 3. New subtypes occasionally develop spontaneously. The large number of virus types and subtypes creates challenges for the maintenance of vaccine stockpiles that can be deployed in the event of an outbreak. 

Strains of FMD serotype O are of most concern for disease spread into new areas. FMD serotype …

What is a breech birth, and what causes it?

During parturition, a breech birth describes fetal presentation. Breech birth is characterized with a calf presenting butt first with no front or hind limbs entering the birth canal. The tail and hindquarters of the calf can be palpated via the vagina.

The cause of breech birth is not known, but it does not appear to be related to cowherd nutrition or genetics.

When a breech birth is experienced, professional assistance (veterinarian) should be immediately consulted.…

How do you calibrate a manure spreader?

Calibrating a manure spreader is critical to ensure that the appropriate rate of manure nutrients is being applied to a field. For some livestock operations, this practice may be a required practice as part of their permit. Calibration will differ depending on the equipment and type of manure being applied.

If you know the capacity of the spreader, you need to determine the width of each pass and the distance it takes to empty the spreader to determine the rate …

How can I prevent leaching of nitrate into groundwater from manure applications?

Nitrate contamination of groundwater occurs when excess nitrate in the soil profile moves along with water that is moving down past the root zone of the crop. In most cases, it is not possible to keep water from moving past the roots, so the only other option for preventing nitrate leaching is to avoid having excess nitrate present in the root zone during times when leaching events are likely to occur. Determine the available nitrogen content of manure prior to …

What are withdrawal times (periods) for meat and milk, and where can they be found?

Withdrawal periods reflect the amount of time necessary for an animal to metabolize an administered product and the amount of time necessary for the product concentration level in the tissues to decrease to a safe, acceptable level. Every federally approved drug or animal health product has a withdrawal period printed on the product label or package insert. Products carry meat withdrawal periods ranging from 0 to 60 days. Examples for meat range from no withdrawal period with ceftiofur, 4-15 days …

What is the basic estrous cycle of the cow?

The basic estrous cycle of the cow averages 21 days in duration (a range of 18 to 24 days) and extends from one period of heat (estrus) to the next. There are four parts to the estrous cycle. Proestrus lasts for one to three days immediately before the cow comes into estrus or heat. Metestrus is the three to four days after estrus, and diestrus is the 12 to 15 days in the middle of the cycle.

During proestrus, the …

Is foot and mouth disease (FMD) the same as mad cow disease (BSE)?

No, they are completely different diseases.

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed (split-hoof, such as cattle) animals. It does not have human health significance. The FMD virus is fragile and easily killed by disinfectants. FMD was last seen in the United States in 1929.

Mad cow disease, technically known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), is believed to be caused by a protein called a prion and affects the central nervous system of cattle. …